2.13 Commonwealth Law Form
Article 161 - English
English is a late 15th Century CE artificially formed phonological language created by Dutch and Venetian language and printing experts at the Palace of Westminster with the authority of King Henry VII Tudor of England (1457-1509) for commercial and political purposes in introducing a unified language for the Island of Britain and reduce the long term influence of Gaelic, Norse and Anglaise (falsely listed as Old French).
The artificial creation of the English language at the end of the 15th Century and through major stages of the 16th Century coincides with the invention of mass produced books through the invention of moveable typesetting and the printing press:
(i) The first moveable type (typesetting) and printing press system (based on existing screw presses) was invented by German Johannes Gutenberg around 1440. The invention coincided with the introduction of pulp-based paper in mass quantities compared to slower and more expensive methods. By comparison, the first typesetting and printing press system could produce approximately three thousand six hundred (3,600) pages per workday, compared to a maximum of fourty (40) typographic hand-printing pages per day – a nine thousand percent (9000%) productivity improvement.
(ii) By 1480, there were estimated to be at least one hundred ten (110) different paper manufacturers and printing press houses operating throughout Europe and England having already produced an estimated twenty million (20,000,000) texts (books and pamphlets) using the new technology. By the middle of the 16th Century it is estimated in excess of two hundred million (200,000,000) texts (books and pamphlets) had been produced.
(iii) Despite the potential of the technology and its ability to be replicated, for the first eighty (80) years of press printing (from 1440 to 1520), book production was heavily linked to the availability, source and location of scholars capable of providing the necessary content and “proof reading” of the typesetting. Thus, centres of Universities and higher learning such as Paris, Cologne, Prague, Bologna, Vienna, Salamanca and Oxford all became key early centers of book publishing. However, the single largest publishing powerhouse until the end of the 16th Century was Venice, producing an estimated one third (1/3) of the total “first edition” texts in print in Europe during the period; and
(iv) A further hindrance to the demand for texts produced by the “new” technology of typesetting and printing press from the late 15th Century onwards was literacy levels, which had fallen dramatically in much of Germany, France, England, Southern Italy, Greece and Eastern Europe. Whereas, the Island of Britain once boasted a literacy rate of over twenty five percent (25%) by the end of the 9th Century, the literacy rate under the reign of the De Montforts, Plantagenets and Tudors had fallen to less than five percent (5%) of the total population; and
(v) For those societies and centers where literacy was high, the introduction of mass produced printing at the end of the 15th Century dramatically accelerated their commercial advantage. Thus commercial centers such as Venice, Genoa, Naples, Paris, Toulouse, Bruges, Berwick, Munich and Valencia all rapidly expanded in wealth as merchants utilized the technology of cheaper printed paper to enhance and increase commerce.
(vi) As at 1500 CE, there was estimated to be approximately two million five hundred thousand (2,500,000) people living on the Island of Britain of which approximately four and one half percent (4 1/2%) or one hundred fifteen thousand (115,000) were literate and numerate. The major centres of learning were the existing eight hundred (800) monasteries, which combined had a capacity to educate upwards of thirty thousand (30,000) or more per year, but were educating less than half that number due to cost, poverty and unrest; and
(vii) A particular challenge to the Island of Britain in the production and sale of books from the start of the 16th Century beyond low rates of literacy and a poor economy, was the absence of a unified language. In the north, people spoke a particular dialect of Scottish Gaelic, while further south the effects of the Viking Kingdoms were found through the language of Norse. To the West and Wales, Welsh Gaelic was the native tongue, while throughout the center south and east of Britain the predominant language was Anglaise (now deliberately misconstrued as Old French). Yet a further complication was the use of Basque as the language of the nobles and immigrants since the time of the invasions of Count Guillermo (William) of Vasconia (Gascony) (1052 - 1087); and
(viii) The Death of the lord of Bruges and English ally Duke Charles Martin (1467-1477) of Burgundy in 1477, sparked a particularly brutal trade war by the Habsburgs with Belgium, ultimately leading to the main river being deliberately silted to prevent trade. English merchant, diplomat and entrepreneur Guillaume de Machlinia (William Caxton) seized upon the crisis as an opportunity, convincing King Henry VII (Tudor) of England (1485-1509) to grant safe passage, housing and rights to the major guilds of Bruges in exchange for boosting the poor English economy. Henry VII agreed and the “best and brightest” left Bruges for London starting in 1477, causing an eventual collapse in the economy of the city by 1500. This mass immigration saw the founding of the worshipful companies also known as the Livery Companies of London; and
(ix) By 1477, Guillaume de Machlinia (William Caxton) with assistance of his son Ricardo de Machlinia “the Finch (Pynton)” and Jan van Wynkyn established the first official “government presses” of England at the Palace of Westminster. With Dutch and Venetian assistance, the “English” language was first formed and put into print by combining the dialect and phonology of Frisian including four thousand five hundred (4,500) of the most common Frisian words, two thousand (2,000) of the most common Gaelic words, one thousand (1,000) of the most common Norse words, two thousand five hundred (2,500) of the formal (proper nouns) and most common words of Anglaise (Old French), eight hundred (800) Latin terms (Anglaise already containing many Latin terms) and approximately one thousand two hundred (1,200) Basque words to form a base language of around twelve thousand (12,000) words of which approximately fourty percent (40%) were multiple words describing the same general concept, object or function; and
(x) The first book known to have been produced in the new language of English was a highly edited version of the writings of Royal Clerk, Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400) entitled Canterbury Tales which describes a range of stories and “parables” allegedly described by average folk on their way to the shrine of Saint Thomas (Becket) of Canterbury. The text while telling stories also describes the function, roles, relations and hierarchy of village and town life and its key positions including (but not limited to) the knight, miller, reeve, cook, judge, friar, summoner, clerk, merchant, squire, franklin, physician, pardoner, shipman, prioress, monk, nun, yeoman, manciple and parson. By the time of his death in 1491, the government presses had produced some eighty seven (87) different books through one hundred eight (108) editions and over four hundred thousand (400,000) copies in the new English language; and
(xi) Upon the death of Guillaume de Machlinia (William Caxton) in 1491, King Henry VII appointed Jan van Wynkyn as Royal Printer until 1501, when Ricardo de Machlinia “the Finch (Pynton)” was appointed to the position and Jan van Wynkyn was granted the franchise as the first commercial printing house to be established on Fleet Street, London. Both Jan van Wynkyn and Ricardo de Machlinia “the Finch (Pynton)” were instrumental in establishing a new standard of typography, spelling and clean letter printing known later as “Chancery Standard” whereby the use of the official “Black Letter” typeface of the Roman Cult was limited to headings only and body type was dramatically simplified for easier reading. During his tenure as the Royal Printer, from 1501 to his death in 1529, Ricardo de Machlinia (Pynton) oversaw the production of in excess of five hundred (500) different books through over one thousand five hundred (1,500) editions in the new English language and over one million (1,000,000) copies. Jan van Wynkyn from 1501 until his death in 1539 published through his Publishing House “De Worde” in excess of four hundred (400) books in over eight hundred (800) editions in English and over two million (2,000,000) copies, many with illustrations focusing on key specialty subjects including (but not limited to) languages, religious texts, science, reference and commerce; and
(xii) A unique feature of the introduction Dictionary of the artificially created language known as English was the extensive use of what was to become known as “school books” in education of how to read, write and spell the language which were sold cheaply. The largest proportion (in numbers produced) of books by Jan van Wynkyn were instructions on the new language using Latin as the “base measure” In association with Robert Whittington, Jan van Wynkyn published Syntaxis (1501), De nominum generibus (1511), Declinationes nominum (1511), De heteroclitis nominibus (1511), Syntaxis (second edition, 1512), De syllabarum quantitate (second edition, c. 1512)o partibus orationis (c. 1514), De synonymis together with De magistratibus veterum Romanorum (1515), Vulga, De octria (English and Latin sentences for translation, 1520), and Verborum preterita et supina (1521); and
(xiii) Beginning in 1536, King Henry VIII promulgated new laws disbanding the education (and alcohol) monopoly of monasteries, priories, convents and friaries. Using a militia force, by 1540, almost all 825 religious communities named in the laws of 1536 and 1539 were destroyed, the religious members tortured and executed, the vast libraries of historic knowledge burnt and destroyed. King Henry VIII then began franchising the rights to produce alcohol (mainly beer), to teach and to adjudicate local matters to “Inns” (also “in”) headed by an Innkeeper. By 1577 there was estimated to be approximately one thousand six hundred (1,600) inns in England – more than double the number of religious communities destroyed forty years earlier. By 1600, an estimated twelve point four percent (12.4%) of the population were literate and numerate in English, or around five hundred thousand (500,000) people – almost five (5) times the number one hundred (100) years earlier; and
(xiv) Upon Queen Elizabeth I ascending the throne, a new Act of Supremacy was passed in 1559 claiming her to be Supreme Head of the Church as well as State. This caused widespread contention amongst the noble and intellectuals of Oxford and Cambridge. Soon after, a brutal crackdown by Sir Francis Walsingham forced the “best and brightest” minds opposed to Elizabeth to flee to safety in Europe, the most famous being the Jesuit College of English in Rome. By 1561, it is estimated that over four hundred fifty (450) of the best academics, professors, writers and researchers were crammed into the lowly Jesuit accommodation in Rome. For the next fifty (50) years, the Jesuit College of Rome became the single most important centre for the creation and publication of new works in English; and
(xv) In 1567, the first official theatre house in Elizabethan England was founded at Whitechapel by William Sylvester and John Reynolds with a capacity of a few hundred patrons for a cost of around £400 (US $16 million in 2010 dollars). In 1576, the second play house was formed at Shoreditch within the East End of London called The Theatre by Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester and managed by James Burbage with a capacity for one thousand two hundred (1,200) at a cost of £700 (US $28 million in 2010 dollars); and
(xvi) In 1591, following the death of Jesuit hunter and spymaster Sir Francis Walsingham, the cost of defending against the Spanish Armada and two disasterous campaigns in support of protestant French King Henry IV Bourbon (1589-1610) had rendered England bankrupt. By 1592, a number of exiles from the Jesuit College of England led by William Shakespeare returned to England and incredibly were granted a Royal Patent to build The Globe Theatre at Southwark in central London– a permanent, purpose built three storey state-of-the-art theatre approximately one hundred twenty (120) to one hundred fourty (140) feet in diameter, circular (twenty (20) sided polygon) with an astounding capacity of just over three thousand (3,000) patrons at a staggering cost of £3,000 (US $120 million in 2010 dollars). By way of comparison, a prosperous farmer (yeoman) in 1600 earned on average £40 per annum, a husbandman in 1600 earned on average £15 per annum and a skilled labourer in 1600 earned (in a good year) no more than £9 per annum compared to a well known and famous actor in 1600 who may make £4 per annum and a famous writer who may earn as much as £2 per manuscript; and
(xvii) The Globe Theatre was completed no later than 1595. However, the Lord Chamberlain Henry Carey as patron of the Burbage brothers “The Theatre” in the East End refused to grant an extra Royal Patent to operate The Globe. Upon the sudden death of Lord Chamberlain Henry Carey in 1596, The Theatre was mysteriously burnt to the ground and the Burbage brothers ruined. However, George Carey successfully delayed and obstructed the granting of the former Theatre patent to the Globe until 1597 when the first plays commenced beginning with the “Shakespearean” play Henry IV. George Carey himself was made Lord Chamberlain in 1597 but was largely ineffective through constant ill health, dying painfully in 1603 both from venereal disease and mercury poisoning; and
(xviii) A unique feature of The Globe plays of Shakespeare unlike European plays or previous performances, or even subsequent performances was the accompanying full print of the play itself given to each patron who attended a performance. Thus audiences were able to read the story and witness its enactment at the same time – a radical and expensive process which remains one of the least discussed or admitted anomalies of Shakespeare as such booklets alone would have made tickets for a poorer audience impossibly expensive; and
(xix) Of the works claimed to Shakespeare but written by the fraternity of the Jesuit College of English in Rome--comprising of some eight hundred eighty four thousand (884,000) words contained in thirty four thousand eight hundred ninty six (34,896) lines and spoken by one thousand two hundred eleven (1,211) characters - thirty three percent (33%) were histories of immense and unprecedented historical research, thirty two percent (32%) were comedies of greater wit than any previous author, twenty nine percent (29%) were tragedies as great as anything from ancient Greece, four percent (4%) were poems and two percent (2%) were sonnets; and
(xx) One of the most extraordinary contributions of the unnamed Jesuit scholars in Rome through the Shakespeare brand of the 16th Century was the use of no less than twenty eight thousand eight hundred twenty nine (28,829) unique word forms, effectively doubling the vocabulary of English since the time of Chaucer and introducing an entire and completely new framework of law, social sciences, history, commerce and trade, accounting and reckoning. Such words as accused, addiction, assassination, bandit, bar, cause, case, contract, court, courtship, crown, employer, investments, law, bond, lawyer, majestic, judgment, negotiate, security, inhabitant, resident, submit, understand were all borne out of Shakespeare. This was achieved mainly through the combining of Latin words as abbreviations to create new English words but also through the introduction of ancient Persian words as well as even Hebrew and Ancient Greek words; and
(xxi) A significant departure through the works of the Jesuits in the 16th Century as Shakespeare compared to the earlier works inventing English at the end of the 15th Century was the ascribing of meanings to the twelve thousand (12,000) to fourteen thousand (14,000) new word forms introduced through Shakespeare that completely contradict the meaning of their etymological roots. In other words, the way in which many of the words introduced by Shakespeare are defined in public is completely opposite to their secret or private meaning – thus converting the English language to the most occult language in history; and
(xxii) The deliberate modification of English to being not only a commercial language but the primary language of occult knowledge and usage was confirmed by the massive undertaking in the creation of the “Authorized Version” of the Bible also known as the King James Version and the KJB or KJV. A further one thousand (1,000) words were introduced into the English language out of approximately eight thousand (8,000) word forms used in the text. Most significantly, the use of the Persian word God / Gad as the public name for Sabaoth, also known as Satan was introduced to replace Yehovah (YHVH) of the Catholic Church since the 8th Century as the primary deity worshipped, making the Church of England the reformed Aryan (Persian) religion of Menes, later known as Judaism.
The foundation of the artificial creation of the English Language by the immigrant craftsmen from Bruges in Belgium combines the foundation of Frisian dialect and phonological pronouncements, the simplification of grammar and syntax of Anglaise (Old French) with the standardization of Latin typeface:
(i) Contrary to deliberately misinformation and fraudulent texts design to hide English as wholly artificially created at the end of the 15th Century, the English language was borne with a twenty six (26) letter Latin character alphabet in both Majuscule (Upper Case) and Miniscule (Lower Case); and
(ii) English further simplified the use of Verbs in Anglaise (Old French) with greater emphasis on the separation of tense and voice through the use of the “pronoun set” (I, you, we, he, she) and use of the “preposition set” (of, in, over, under); and
(iii) Phonology and pronunciation was standardized on Frisian (Bruges) dialect, presumably because the scholars, typesetters and printers who first formed English were all from Bruges. However, within fifty (50) years of the introduction of English, the pronunciation of English had reverted back to phonological dialects consistent with previous languages so that in the North and West, English was pronounced with Gaelic phonemes, northern England with Nordic phonemes and southern England with the softer Anglaise (Old French) phonemes.
A unique feature introduced into English through the heavily occulted design of the King James Bible from 1611 was the creation of certain Ideographic words, whereby the shape and design of the word conveys meaning into a primarily alphabetic language English. This was reserved for words beginning and ending with the same letter, signifying the first and last letter symbolizing an ancient primary symbol:
(i) The letter “A” used as an Ideogram at the beginning and end of a word symbolizes the ancient Egyptian and Phoenician hieroglyph of an ox head or the sign of Ba’al. Hence its use literally symbolizes an object, quality or concept “bound” to Ba’al such as absentia, academia, algebra, anathema, animalia, apologia, aqua, arcadia, area, aria, aroma, arugula, Asia and Atlanta; and
(ii) The letter “C” used as an Ideogram at the beginning and end of a word symbolizes the ancient Egyptian and Phoenician hieroglyph of a mouth and speech. Hence its use literally symbolizes the real voice, meaning or speech about an object, quality or concept “inverted” or “hidden” in plain sight such as caustic, chaotic, chic, chronic, cleric, clinic, colic, comic, copacetic and cryptic; and
(iii) The letter “D” used as an Ideogram at the beginning and end of a word symbolizes the ancient Egyptian and Phoenician hieroglyph of a door. Hence its use literally symbolizes an object, quality or concept between two doors or moving between doors such as dad, dead, deed, defend, demand, dread, dud and dyed; and
(iv) The letter “E” used as an Ideogram at the beginning and end of a word symbolizes the ancient Egyptian and Phoenician hieroglyph of a window. Hence its use literally symbolizes an object, quality or concept between two windows or moving between windows such as ease, eagle, educate, eerie, eke, elevate, elite, elope, elude, emancipate, encourage, enervate, entendre, enterprise, entice, enumerate, enunciate, envelope, epicure, epilogue, epistle, equable, eradicate, erudite, escape, estate, estimate, evade, evase, everyone, evidence, evince, eviscerate, evocative, evoke, evolve, ewe, exercise, exculpate, execrable, executive, expatriate, expiate, expose, expurgate, extirpate and extricate; and
(v) The letter “H” used as an Ideogram at the beginning and end of a word symbolizes the ancient Egyptian and Phoenician hieroglyph of a fence or enclosure, symbolizing an object, quality or concept “owned”, “enclosed” and “in custody” such as harsh, hath, health, high, hitch, hunch, hush and hutch; and
(vi) The letters “R” and “P” used as an Ideogram at the beginning and end of a word symbolizes the ancient Egyptian and Phoenician hieroglyph of a head symbolizing an object, quality or concept “possessed” by a head such as pomp, poop, pop, prep, prop, pulp, pup, rapier, razor, reader, realer, reaper, rear, remainder, reminder, retainer, rider, riser, river, roar, ruler, rumor and runner; and
(vii) The letter “S” used as an Ideogram at the beginning and end of a word symbolizes the ancient Egyptian and Phoenician hieroglyph of a snake most commonly associated with magic, curses, spells symbolizing an object, quality or concept associated with magic or its effects such as sadness, sagacious, salacious, sedulous, sebaceous, selfless, serious, solicitous, sorceress, soulless, specious, stasis, statistics, stiffness, stress, sumptuous, supercilious, superfluous, superstitious, suppositious, surreptitious and Swiss; and
(viii) The letter “T” and “X” used as an Ideogram at the beginning and end of a word symbolizes the ancient Egyptian and Phoenician hieroglyph of a mark or sign most commonly associated with a sacred agreement or pledge (the X symbolizing the mark of Osiris in Ancient Egyptian mythology) symbolizing an object, quality or concept bound to a sacred pledge such as talent, tarot, tart, taunt, teat, tempt, tenet, tent, terrorist, therapist, tint, toast, torrent, tort, tournament, tourniquet, tout, traitor, treat, trenchant, trident, trinket, trumpet and trust.
The initial successes of introducing a completely new “standard” language for a realm as exhibited by English at the end of the 15th Century encouraged similar projects associated with the spread of new thought and the anti-Habsburg / Genoese campaigns funded and orchestrated by the Pisans and Venetians:
(i) In 1512 CE, Venetian trained - German (Heidelberg) schooled lawyer Martinus Leder (Luther) (b. 1483 - d.1546) and Venetian trained German artist Luca Mahler (Cranach) (b. 1472 - d. 1553) were sent with substantial funds to the University of Wittenberg under the protection of the House of Wettin and Frederick III (1483 - 1525) of Saxony. However, the completion of the new artificial language known as German through the translation of several texts was so far behind the Venetians appointed in 1519 Mizrahi (Jewish) Rabbi Andreas Bodenstein (b. 1486 - d.1541) to the University of Wittenberg, to oversee the construction of the “Luther” German Bible and anti-Semitic literature aimed at “fusing” the disperse Khazarian Diaspora together for the first time, “Jews”. The output of the over one hundred fifty (150) printing presses and paper works was phenomenal, producing in excess of two million (2,000,000) texts in the new language of German (books and propaganda pamphlets) by 1525; and
(ii) By 1516, the University of Leiden was the sight for the founding of a massive new print works under the guidance of Venetians Giovanni Memmo (b. 1496–d. 1536) and his brother Pietro Memmo. Development of a new artificial language called Nederlands (Dutch) and translations into the new language were well underway when Spanish forces attacked the city, the Venetians were forced to abandon their printing works, with some heading to Amsterdam and the leadership to a newly commissioned “protestant” enclave known as New Jerusalem (Munster or Monastery) in Westphalia (now North-Rhine of Germany). By 1536, Catholic forces captured Munster, executing the leaders. However, the development of the Dutch language continued from Amsterdam and Emden.
While the first Lexicons of English coincided with the invention of the language itself from the end of the 15th Century, the invention of Dictionaries providing rich information on definition, etymology, phonetics and pronunciation did not emerge until the end of the 16th Century:
(i) In 1592, the Company of Mercers and Adventurers of London authorized the first English Dictionary of eight thousand (8000) English words called Elementarie created by Richard Mulcaster. The reference text did not attempt to be a medium for creating new words, only to collect and aggregate existing words; and
(ii) The first monolingual and alphabetical Dictionary of English was in 1604 by Robert Cawdrey called "A Table Alphabeticall” containing just two thousand five hundred fourty three (2,543) words in one hundred twenty (120) pages; and
(iii) By 1656 Thomas Blount published a work called Glossopgraphia containing eleven thousand (11,000) word entries and was the first to include etymologies and the first to cite sources for the words defined. It was also the last dictionary of substantial note that maintained a strict objectivity in avoiding crossing the line as a collection of fact, versus a means of propagating new words and new meanings; and
(iv) In 1658, Edward Philips, the nephew of John Milton published a far more popular dictionary known as The New World of Words containing some eleven thousand (11,000) new words, of which at least one hundred percent (100%) were simply plagarised from the work of Thomas Blount. However, by the fifth (5th) edition the number had grown to seventeen thousand (17,000) new words largely through the creative license of the editor and his uncle. By 1706, the work had grown to over thirty eight thousand (38,000) under the editing of John Kersey. This work therefore heralds the dictionary as the primary means for officially introducing new words and new meanings into the English language as much a writer of fiction or playright; and
(v) The influence of dictionaries as a purely fictional and creative medium to invent the English language was highlighted with the publication by Nathan Bailey in 1721 of the work entitled An Universal Etymological English Dictionary containing some more than fourty two thousand (42,000+) word forms, largely plagiarized from the work of John Kersey with yet new fictitious words and etymologies. The dictionary was so popular, it went through at last thirty (30) editions until 1802; and
(vi) At the end of the 19th Century, the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) project attempting to be the “most objective”, and detailed dictionary of the English language commenced. The full volume set was issued in 1895. As at the end of the 20th Century over six hundred thousand (600,000) words in the English language are recognized; and
(viii) A project originally inspired by the Oxford English Dictionary commenced in the United States by Henry Campbell Black who by 1891 published the first (1st) edition of the Black’s Law Dictionary, the second (2nd) edition in 1910. The ninth (9th) edition of Black’s Law Edition was published in 2009. Most significantly, Black’s Law Dictionary is one (1) of the most infamous publications for demonstrating complete and utter disregard to the etymological preservation of legal words from edition to edition in preference to the flexibility to define the same word differently in light of creative, political and commercial interests. As a result, most courts and official bodies in the United States refuse to acknowledge definitions that are sourced from editions older than the most recent edition.
Due to false claims regarding the etymology of certain English words, the influsion of occult and cryptic meanings from the 16th Century, as well as the flagrant creative license of dictionary creators prior to the 18th Century and still exhibited currently, in specialist dictionaries such as law, the reliability of meaning, etymology, usage and purpose of English words as stated in “official texts” can only be substantiated as claims, rather than as facts. Therefore, Lexical works that seek to objectively identify true etymology since the foundation of the language such as UCADIA have every right to be regarded as a credible source.